William & Mary Alumni Magazine

Welcome to the Winter 2011 issue of the William & Mary Alumni Magazine. This issue features photo spreads from homecoming, the Alumni Medallion Award winners and much more.


Please note that the photo of the Civil War soldiers on page 35 of the Fall 2011 issue of the magazine is reversed left-to-right. The white straps on the Confederates are canteen straps, and the canteen was ALWAYS worn over the left hip so as to not interfere with the ammo box, always worn over the right hip. Thus, the strap should be falling from the right shoulder down to the left hip where the canteen hung, not as shown. Also, the Union soldier's bayonet scabbard is incorrectly on his right hip -- it was ALWAYS worn on the left hip. The same Union soldier's ammo box strap -- the very wide black leather strap with the metal eagle plate on his chest, should be going from his left shoulder down across his chest to his right hip, where the ammo box was ALWAYS worn. I am speaking not only with an interest in history, but from more than 10 years experience as a Civil War reenactor. But even without such arcane knowledge, one notes that the jackets on the two Confederates are wrong -- virtually ALL men's clothing, then and now has the buttons on the right-hand panel, with the left-hand panel with corresponding button-holes buttoning OVER it. Yours is reversed on all three men. The accompanying stories were excellent, but I couldn't get by that photo. Let's do the men in these period photos honor and justice.

Ron Reel J.D. '83
Arlington, Va.
Art Director’s Note: The Wet Plate Collodion process is a historically accurate photographic process which was in wide use from the 1850s through the 1880s. The process produces an image on glass or tin sheets known as ambrotypes or ferrotypes (tin-types). One of the nuances of this process is the reversal of the final images. Unlike modern cameras that utilize mirrors to display the image accurately, early cameras and lenses did not have the ability to reverse the image. Therefore, when the images were produced on the glass plates, they were inverted. Since this is accurate to how images were captured in the 1860s, we made the conscious decision not to correct the printed image, but to print it in the magazine how it was produced on the plate. With that being said, the interpreters are accurately wearing the canteen and ammo box on the correct hips, it just appears to be incorrect, because the image seen in the magazine is an accurate digital scan of the original ambrotype.


I so enjoyed your article on Vic Raschi, the W&M and Yankee baseball great (Fall 2011). I can add a very small bit that may interest your readers. My husband and I were on one of the W&M Alumni Journeys, maybe 15 years ago, to Sorrento. Staying a few days in Rome after the time in Sorrento, we noticed one of the ladies wearing this HUMONGOUS ring. Asking her about it, she said it was her late husband’s World Series ring, blazing with five diamonds commemorating the amazing wins that the Yankees pulled off winning five consecutive World Series, from 1949-53. Mrs. Raschi was a lovely lady; we enjoyed her stories of 'the old days' when, if wives wanted to go to Spring Training, it was on their own dime. We agreed with her that the salaries of today's players bordered on the obscene, as she remembered scrimping to make ends meet.

I’d also like to tell you that the new format of the Alumni Magazine is fantastic. Devoured it cover to cover. Good job!

Thank you,

Carolyn Estes Bowen ’53
Los Gatos, Calif.


I don’t know if this story is true, but one week during my wonderful four years at W&M we all talked about an article in the Flat Hat criticizing the campus laundry. The next week, we talked about the editor's laundry being returned so full of starch that it snapped in two if you tried to fold it. Does anyone else remember if this really happened?

Howard Rayfiel '50
Sarasota, Fla.
We welcome letters from our readers and reserve the right to edit them. Brevity is encouraged. Please send correspondence to Editor, William and Mary Alumni Magazine, P.O. Box 2100, Williamsburg, VA 23187 or email alumni.magazine@wm.edu.

Only One W&M

Homecoming was a tremendous success! It was a time of nostalgia and reconnecting with old friends and our alma mater. It was a glimpse of what it means to have a continuing lifelong relationship between the College and its most important constituents -- alumni and students. I am still paging through photos of the weekend. All the smiling, familiar faces make the hard work of putting together a coordinated and exciting Homecoming weekend well worth it. And the best thing is: next year will be even more amazing!

It is the importance of these lifelong relationships that makes our Alumni Association different from many across the nation: Though we work together with the College to ensure its success and progress, we are a separate organization. We are both a voice for alumni and a voice to alumni. Most importantly, you became a member of the Alumni Association at the moment you stepped on campus as a student. We don't ask for dues or have any other membership criteria. We serve the entire community of William & Mary alumni.

As an alumnus you are a steward of a great inheritance. You received an education unlike any other. The community that is William & Mary may be centered in Williamsburg, but truly is dispersed around the world. No other college creates the types of leaders and servants that exemplify what it means to be a citizen of our nation (and our world). But we also always have one thing in common that makes us like no other. The same song echoes in our ears. The same pride swells within us. The same traditions tie us together. There is only one William & Mary.

Everything that your Alumni Association does is focused on fostering a lifelong relationship. All alumni open their mailboxes four times a year to our award-winning magazine; all alumni are invited to alumni events; all alumni can vote and nominate individuals for our Board; all alumni are encouraged to provide feedback; all alumni are welcome!

Three tremendous alumni who embody the ideal of this lifelong relationship will be honored in February. Joe Agee '52, M.Ed. '56, Ruth Tillar '45 and Henry Wolf '64, J.D. '66 have bled green and gold for the better part of their collective lives (see p. 36). The Alumni Medallion is the highest award the Alumni Association can bestow on a graduate of the College. In short, they represent the ideals of William & Mary. The award ceremony, which is open to the public, is on the Saturday of Charter Day weekend, Feb. 4, at 10 a.m. in the Sadler Center. It is always a memorable and inspiring occasion.

In closing, the results of the fall Board of Directors elections are in and our new members, J. Thomas Flesher '73, Christopher Adkins '95, Ph.D. '09, Kevin J. Turner '95 and Elyce C. Morris '98, will begin their terms in March (see page 23). Members of the Board of Directors are your representatives. Comprised of 16 members serving four-year terms, their function is to serve as the governing body of the Alumni Association. Nominations for selecting the next Board of Directors are accepted all year, but to be considered for the current election year, nominations must be submitted by April 1, 2012. You can download the nomination form at www.wmalumni.com/awards. I hope you will take this opportunity to help shape the future of your Alumni Association and make the College an even more vibrant place.

Go Tribe!

KAREN R. COTTRELL '66, M.Ed. '69, Ed.D. '84
Executive Vice President
William and Mary Alumni Association

State of the University

Dear William & Mary Community, William & Mary is flatly amazing. Why do I say this? First, there is no other state university in the country that focuses as squarely as the College on each of its undergraduates, not just those in honors programs. There are only a few private universities in our league when it comes to undergraduate learning. Second, no other university in the country, public or private, has as healthy a mix of teaching and research. We take steps to ensure both teaching and research flourish at the College, involving our full-time faculty. Third, there are few universities that have as viable a balance between graduate and professional education, on the one hand, and undergraduate education, on the other. Fourth, even though state universities tend to grow and grow, we have remained human scale, with a powerful sense of community and collegiality. Fifth, if there is another campus in the United States as historic and beautiful as the College's, I don't know which one.

I believe this century is going to be the College's best. My optimism centers on our people -- the high quality of our students, the extraordinary caliber of our faculty and staff, the devotion of so many alumni, and the pervasive sense that what we are doing at the College is vitally important, that we are changing lives for the better, that we are developing leaders who will make a difference whatever field they enter.

Here are just a few highlights:

The 1,486 members of the undergraduate Class of 2015 come from a record-breaking pool of more than 12,800 applicants. Twenty-five percent of the entering class had SAT scores above 1450 (on a 1600 scale), and 165 of them scored an 800 on one or more sections of the test. Twenty-eight percent are students of color, 10 percent consist of first-generation college students, and 8 percent are alumni children or siblings. A record 85 international students joined this year's class and total enrollment, including undergraduates and graduate students, has reached 468 international students representing 51 countries. Thirty members of the Class of 2015 represent the first cohort of our new joint-degree program with Scotland's oldest university, St. Andrews.

Our faculty excels at blending teaching and research. Thanks to Joe Plumeri '66, we honor 20 of them each year with significant financial awards to celebrate their teaching, research and service. This year's group included a polar oceanographer who's helped make us a leader in the field, a chemist whose research has implications for ailments like Alzheimer's disease, and a physicist whose research led to a namesake theoretical model. One of our major research efforts grew out of a student's honors thesis. This project has amassed the most comprehensive database in the world on international aid projects and has become a key resource in evaluating foreign aid programs.

Students, faculty and staff continue to serve in their communities and throughout the world to an extraordinary extent. Our students alone logged more than 333,000 hours of community service during the 2010/11 academic year.

Thanks to 2010/11 titles in football, men's cross country, men's soccer and women's tennis, William & Mary became the first school in our league to exceed 100 conference championships. Our 500 varsity athletes are also serious students who graduate just like their classmates. More than 80 percent of our students play on varsity, club or intramural teams, take part in fitness and wellness classes and programs, use the fitness center on their own or get involved in other outdoor activities.

Since the turn of this century, the campus has been enormously enhanced by over one million square feet of new or renovated facilities. Last summer, Tribe Square opened with residential apartments for 56 undergraduates above four "studentfriendly" restaurants, and Small Hall, our physics building, came back on line with state-of-the-art laboratories, after extensive renovations and additions.

Our alumni have been changing the world since 1693. Bob Gates '65 is a great contemporary example. Bob's record as director of the CIA, president of Texas A&M, and Secretary of Defense under two presidents is extraordinary by any measure, highlighting the leadership and service so characteristic of William & Mary alumni. Bob will succeed Sandra Day O'Connor as our 24th Chancellor.

With the exception of a tiny few, very rich private colleges and universities, all U.S. institutions of higher education confront severe financial challenges. William & Mary is moving to ensure we will be among the institutions that do not simply survive but thrive in the 21st century.

For all sorts of reasons, there is only one William & Mary!

President, College of William & Mary
This article is adapted from the 2011 State of the University. Please visit www.wm.edu/ presidents report to see photos, videos and links to news from last year, stories about some of our students, faculty and alumni, and a financial report on the 2010/11 fiscal year.

McGlothlin Fellows Discuss Economic Future


The fundamental question looming over today's tepid economy is not when the crisis will come. It's whether policymakers in Washington have enough political will to craft a solution before it arrives. That was the consensus among James W. McGlothlin '62, J.D. '64, L.L.D. '00 and the McGlothlin Forum Fellows David Boies, chairman and managing partner of Boies, Schiller and Flexner LLP; the Honorable John Snow, 73rd United States Secretary of the Treasury and former CEO of CSX Corporation; and William C. Weldon, chairman and CEO of Johnson & Johnson, during the Nov. 2 public forum, "Is America's Engine Off Track?"

The open debate drew more than 500 students, faculty, staff and community members to the Mason School of Business, and was the capstone of the three-day McGlothlin Leadership Forum, which celebrated its inaugural run November 1-3.

With an aging American population, a growing national debt and increasingly divided political leadership, the McGlothlin Fellows agreed a two pronged approach is essential to restore America's economy. Their suggestion: an increase in revenue coupled with a reduction in entitlement programs, such as Social Security and Medicare, which account for a third of the national budget. Both must happen.

"It's not rocket science," said Boies, who was selected as one of the "100 Most Influential People in the World" by Time Magazine in 2010. "We know what needs to be done, and if we don't increase revenue and reduce entitlement programs we are going down the road of a second- or third-class economy."

Rising healthcare costs threatening future access to care was discussed at length during the hour-and-a-half session. Weldon, who leads more than 115,000 employees at J&J, said policymakers must reign in healthcare costs to ease the financial burden on the elderly.

James McGlothlin ’62, J.D. '64, LL.D. ’00 greets Gov. Bob McDonnell at the Wren Building during the Forum.

People are living longer, said Weldon, and for people over the age of 65 the cost of healthcare is five times more expensive. Throw into that mix advances in medical technology, which offer people more life-extending options, along with aging demographics, and the result is a healthcare conundrum.

But a solution for the problem was a bit tougher to decipher. Boies said, "It may mean there are life-prolonging procedures that are simply too expensive to offer. We're going to have to make those choices. The only question is are we forced to make those choices out of bankruptcy as a failed country, or are we going to get together and make those choices now."

On top of the financial challenges since the economic collapse in 2008, the Fellows discussed the polarization in Washington. Political will is needed from both parties to solve the economic problems, a daunting task as the middle threshold shrinks.

"If you look at Greece, you have a government who can't pay their bills and people lose faith in the financial market," said Snow, who as the treasury secretary steered the effort to pass the 2003 Jobs and Growth Tax Relief Act. "Governments that don't manage debt obligations fail."

Debate over how to increase revenue led to a plethora of ideas: simplify the tax code; increase the rate of inflation; or institute a consumption tax. All philosophies -- right or wrong -- were put on the table.

McGlothlin, who served as the moderator, pressed the Fellows about their thoughts on a gas tax. Although they all agreed it was a wonderful theory -- and ought to be done -- they quickly dismissed the idea as politically impossible.

"The hardest thing to get through the political pipeline is a gas tax," said Snow.

The role of small businesses, increased regulations and the demand for jobs were all topics analyzed during the session.

"We've got to improve the education system, and get people into sectors where there are jobs," said Boies. "We need to educate people for jobs of the future."

The panel's discussion was part of the forum in order to engage students and faculty in discussion, debate and analysis of current issues facing the country. Many of the questions were submitted in advance and came from all over the country.

Before and after the plenary session, William & Mary students had the opportunity to participate in individual small classes with the Forum Fellows. Weldon, who met with aspiring business students, discussed the challenges for a public company in today's environment. Boies explained to William & Mary law students how his firm selects cases and strategies attendant to litigation, while Snow led a class discussion on the changing relations of business and government.

The forum, co-sponsored by the Mason School of Business and the Law School, was conceived by and named in honor of James McGlothlin, chairman and CEO of The United Company, to prepare students to make a difference in the world by expanding their understanding of the vital roles of leadership and accountability in global political, legal and economic systems.

For video of the session, visit http://mason.wm.edu/mcglothlin_forum_video.
Close to 70 Geology alumni gathered in November to celebrate half a century.

Geology celebrates half a century

William & Mary's Department of Geology is celebrating its 50th birthday -- not even a tick of the clock in terms of the age of the earth.

A birthday party was held the first weekend of November. The high point of the celebration was a Saturday field trip to Belle Island, at the Falls of the James River in Richmond. It's a pilgrimage of sorts, Department Chair Chuck Bailey '89 explained.

"[Bruce Goodwin] passed in 2008 and just about every William & Mary geology student who took a structural geology class or a historical geology class spent some time at Belle Island on these exposures," said Bailey.

Goodwin is one of the so-called founding fathers of William & Mary's geology department, Bailey said, along with Kenneth Bick, Stephen Clement and Gerald Johnson.

Bailey expected around 70 geology alumni to show up for the weekend celebration. The number of expected attendees included the department chair: Bailey, a 1989 graduate, is one of the department's alumni. Bailey noted that the department has grown in both number of majors and number of faculty members over the years. Today's geology department also maintains an ambitious mentored research component, one that provides each geology major with a research project before graduation. It's an important fulfilling of a department tradition, he noted.

"I think if you look down the hall and see Rowan [Lockwood] or Brent [Owens] advising freshmen, you'll see that the faculty are still detecting those sparks," said Bailey. "That aspect is exactly the same."

William & Mary has a greater percentage of undergraduates who participate in study-abroad programs than any other public institution offering doctoral degrees in the United States, according to a recent study by the Institute of International Education. The IIE's Open Doors 2011 Report on International Educational Exchange ranks William & Mary first at 43.9 percent.

According to the Chronicle of Higher Education, William & Mary is one of the top producers of Fulbright scholars among research institutions nationwide. While it is not considered a ranking, the College appears as 31st nationally and is the only Virginia school on the list. According to the Charles Center, 57 William & Mary students and alumni applied for the scholarships, and 12 were selected for either full Fulbright or Fulbright English Teaching Assistant (ETA) grants.

The Mason School of Business's Executive Master of Business Administration Program is ranked 36th in the world, according to Bloomberg Businessweek. Their ranking of executive MBA programs is based on three separate surveys of EMBA graduates (2011, 2009 and 2007) and a poll of EMBA program directors. The College was ranked ahead of Boston University and the University of Florida.

Also according to Bloomberg Businessweek, Mason's Flex MBA Program is ranked 48th in the nation among part-time MBA programs, up from 58th in 2009, the last time the ranking was produced. This ranking is based on separate measures of student satisfaction, academic quality and post-graduation success. William & Mary's Flex MBA Program was recently ranked 45th in the nation by U.S. News & World Report.


In October, we asked all alumni to visit W&M's Ampersandbox and share with us a word pair that defines their experiences at the College. We promised to publish our favorites, so here they are:

Demetra Kontos '85

Mary Curro '57

Brian Focarino '11

Faith Hurley '78

See more about these and other word pairs at ampersandbox.wm.edu. Thanks for contributing!

W&M’s first residential African-American students honored

From left: Janet Brown Strafer ’71, Karen Ely ’71 and Lynn Briley ’71, the first three African-American residential students at the College, joined members of the W&M community and the Hulon Willis Association at an event over Homecoming weekend.

During Homecoming weekend, more than 150 William & Mary faculty and staff members, students and alumni and their families joined together to honor the College's first three African-American residential students: Lynn Briley '71, Karen Ely '71 and Janet Brown Strafer '71.

"When Lynn, Janet, and Karen were at William & Mary, there were only a handful of part-time African-American students enrolled here," President Taylor Reveley said. "But Lynn, Janet and Karen were very talented. They were self-confident, they were uncommonly gracious and they changed forever our campus. We are simply thrilled to have them all back, and have them all back at once for their 40th reunion."

The event honoring the three alumnae was organized by the Hulon Willis Association (HWA). During the ceremony, the association presented Briley, Ely and Strafer with the torch award, which, according to HWA President and Associate Vice President for Development Earl Granger '92, M.Ed. '98, "represents an eternal flame that continues to light the way for all of us." They were also presented with copies of a plaque made in their W&M's first residential African-American students honored honor that will be placed in Jefferson Hall, where they lived for three years. It is an honor that the three never imagined happening more than 40 years ago when they first arrived on campus. According to Briley, Ely and Strafer, they weren't thinking about being the first African-American students to live on campus. They were simply worried about moving in and being away from their parents.

"We felt like any other freshmen," Ely said.

It wasn't until orientation that they realized they were the only African-American students living on campus. Even so, they shared many experiences that other students had. They joined the choir and started a student group -- the Black Student Organization. They also participated in William & Mary's traditions, including the wearing of "duc caps" as freshmen.

Now, looking back on her time here, Briley said that W&M gave her much.

"William & Mary meant a lot to me," Briley said. "I do remember getting my first job only because they knew I had graduated from William & Mary. I know many of you have had that experience, and it is very prestigious to have the College of William & Mary on your resume."

Virginia Vogel Carey '71, M.Ed '79, Ed.S. '93, Ed.D '97, who was a classmate of the three said she couldn't imagine what their parents must have felt like when they dropped them off at the College, not knowing what would happen. Carey later served as dean of admission at William & Mary and was part of the leadership that worked tirelessly to help diversify the College's undergraduate student population.

Reveley noted how much the campus has changed since the three alumnae graduated 40 years ago. Students of color now make up 27 percent of the student body, he said, and the faculty is becoming increasingly diverse.

"Although the full embrace of diversity came very slowly to William & Mary," he said, "I believe it has arrived in full force for our student body."

William & Mary Rector Jeffrey Trammell '73, who was a William & Mary student during the same time period, said that until the arrival of Briley, Ely and Strafer, William & Mary "didn't reflect our country. It didn't reflect who we are."

Trammell said that the three not only changed the student body, but also the leadership of the College.

"We had in succession: the second woman rector; we had the first African- American rector; we had the first Jewish rector and the first openly gay rector," Trammell said. "So, in successive order, this place is starting to look like America because of what you did, and we thank you greatly for that."

Former Vice President for Student Affairs Sam Sadler '65, M.Ed. '71 worked for the admissions office when these students were accepted. He recalled how Briley, Ely and Strafer had no support system when they entered the College.

"None of us achieves anything except because other people walked in paths that we have to walk, and passed the way for us," Sadler said. "Well, let me tell you, folks, these are the women on whose shoulders you stand for what they accomplished or what they did."

'Turkeypalooza' provides Thanksgiving meals to locals in need

Donated goods are temporarily piled behind Williamsburg Presbyterian Church.

William & Mary students navigated a maze of brown paper bags and cardboard boxes in the parking lot behind Williamsburg Presbyterian Church on Nov. 18, sorting through piles of yams, green beans, pie crusts and assorted canned goods.

The hundreds of canned goods and other items that were collected and sorted that day were part of the Campus Kitchen at William & Mary's annual "Turkeypalooza" event, which provides Thanksgiving meals to people in need. The foods were paired with frozen turkeys and delivered to local residents. Altogether, the event provided Thanksgiving meals to approximately 149 local residents this year.

"It honestly doesn't seem right if you aren't allowed to have a Thanksgiving because of what's available to you," said Molly Bulman '12, coordinator of the Campus Kitchen. "Everyone should be able to participate."

Using food donated from places like Trader Joe's and Bloom, the Campus Kitchen at W&M provides meals to 180 individuals each week throughout the year. The William & Mary student organization, which is part of 31 Campus Kitchens nationwide, began Turkeypalooza about two years ago.

In addition to private donations, the Campus Kitchen received donated items from the Black Law Students' Association and the Office of Strategic Initiatives. Additionally, U.S. Army soldiers from Fort Eustis volunteered to sort the donations and prepare them for delivery.

"It's really fun doing the turkey deliveries," said Cassie Powell '12, adding that the best part is seeing people's faces when they drop off the baskets.

Powell said she has really enjoyed working with the Campus Kitchen both during Turkeypalooza and throughout the year.

"It's been a really affecting, really wonderful experience making those connections with people who are seemingly different than you but really have a lot of the same concerns and ideas," she said.

College looking for creative ways to save money and increase revenue

Provost Michael Halleran

Provost Michael R. Halleran sent a memo in early November to faculty announcing the Creative Adaptation Fund. It sets aside $200,000 for the coming 2012-13 fiscal year to develop creative adaptions that improve the quality of W&M's educational programs either directly or indirectly by increasing efficiency. The creative adaptation initiative follows an effort launched last year that looked at business innovation and efficiencies in all administrative areas of the College. That review identified more than 60 projects, which, when fully implemented, could produce more than $2 million in annual cost savings and net new revenues.

China conference puts W&M Law School on the map

The first international conference hosted by the William & Mary Law School’s Property Rights Project came to its successful conclusion Oct. 15 at Tsinghua University in Beijing, China. Scholars, jurists and practitioners from the United States and China gathered at the Project’s Eighth Annual Brigham-Kanner Property Rights Conference to discuss the evolution of property rights on a global scale. A highlight of the conference was the presentation of the Brigham-Kanner Property Rights Prize to retired Supreme Court Justice Sandra Day O’Connor, who appeared via video to accept.

Theatre instructor wins NPR contest

Adjunct Instructor of Theatre Christine Westberg '77 won round seven of NPR's Three-Minute Fiction contest on Nov. 15. Westberg's short story, "Little Hossein," beat out more than 3,000 other submissions for this round in the contest, which challenges people to create original short stories that can be read in about three minutes. Westberg based her story on living in the foothills of mountains near Tehran, Iran in 1963.

A View from the Top

G. Paul Nardo '88 Keeps Virginia's Capitol Together



The view from the office of G. Paul Nardo '88 is an enviable one.

To the north it's of the green lawn of Virginia's Capitol Square and Richmond's Old City Hall. To the east his view is of the Executive Mansion.

But this picturesque sight is currently obscured by two green cherry pickers, the latest encroachment on the Capitol by director Steven Spielberg. The blockbuster filmmaker has taken over a chamber of the Capitol building for weeks while shooting his film about Abraham Lincoln. For Nardo, whose office is on the third floor, it's made the work day a bit more interesting.

"I feel like I should go to a Guns N' Roses concert," he jokes. The filmmakers obviously don't know that Nardo was recently elected clerk of the House of Delegates, a position that oversees the running of half of Virginia's legislature.

Nardo grew up in a small steel mill town called New Cumberland, W.Va., situated in the northern panhandle of the Mountain State. When it came time for college, he knew exactly where he wanted to go.

"I love the atmosphere," he says of the College. "I love the boxwoods and the campus. I love that you actually get to know your professors."

Nardo says he still keeps in touch with a number of his college instructors, including Joel Schwartz, Ron Rapoport, Clay Clemens '80 and John McGlennon.

"Paul was always a very interested student," says McGlennon, chair of the government department. "He gave the strong impression of someone who knew how to get things done, and he was very pragmatic. It's a delight to see him obtain such stature."

A government major, Nardo worked his way through college at the school cafeteria and as a waiter at Berret's. His sophomore year he had a failed bid for student body president. After losing, he decided it would be the perfect time to study abroad in England at the University of Bristol.

After graduating in 1988, he began working as a legislative assistant for the late U.S. Representative Herbert H. Bateman '49 (R-Virginia), later becoming his legislative director.

In 1994 he became the chief speechwriter for then-Gov. George Allen. Nardo wrote more than 1,000 speeches for Allen, including four live televised State of the Commonwealth Addresses. Allen later became a U.S. senator, and is currently running for the Republican nomination for that seat against Jamie Radtke '98.

While working for Allen, Nardo met Mary Augusta Barham, the governor's confidential assistant. They married in 1996, and she followed Allen to McGuireWoods when his term was up. Nardo served for four years as the director of communications for the State Council of Higher Education for Virginia before deciding he needed a change. Then he received a call from Virginia House of Delegates Speaker William J. Howell, asking if Nardo would be his chief of staff.

"He was my right hand man for nine years," says Howell. "He is a very special person, and an excellent writer."

"Some people call [Howell] the Bob Newhart of the podium," says Nardo. "He's got a quick wit."

G. Paul Nardo ’88

During a crisis in the Middle East, a representative from the French government gave a speech referencing the Revolutionary War and what America owed to the Marquis de Lafayette.

"The speaker just goes 'Well, I'm glad we had that. Probably the last time they really helped us,'" Nardo recalls. The representative got up and left the room.

On June 9, 2010, Nardo was elected to his current position as clerk for the House of Delegates.

In this new position he ensures that all constitutional, statutory and policy requirements at the General Assembly are adhered to, certifies all acts of the legislature and maintains the official records of legislation. From rules changes and orienting new members to deciding who gets which office, Nardo is the one making sure everything runs smoothly at the House.

"We're here to help delegates be effective when they're in session," Nardo says.

A colleague recently marched Nardo past a new addition to the Capitol building -- Nardo's name etched into a wall of the Capitol building.

"You really start thinking about your mortality when your name is in marble," Nardo says.

The rise to his current position hasn't gone unnoticed.

"Paul Nardo is a consummate public servant, having worked for more than a decade in the General Assembly and in state government for more than 17 years," said Gov. Bob McDonnell in a statement. "Like the College, the Virginia House of Delegates is a place of many strong and long-lasting traditions. As Clerk, Paul is now the custodian of these traditions and takes this role very seriously."

While his career has reached new heights, Nardo considers drafting the resolution that commended the College on its 300th anniversary as one of the highlights of his career.

"Most of the good things in my life I can tie back to William & Mary," Nardo says, adding that he visits regularly.

"He loved William & Mary," Howell says. "He got a great education, and he's a real tribute to the College."

Affection for William & Mary has become a family affair. Barham, Nardo's 13-year-old son has taken a healthy interest in government, and wants to attend the College just like his father.

"He loves William & Mary as we all do," Nardo says. "Alma Mater of a nation."

Even if momentarily obscured by Spielberg's equipment, Nardo seems pleased with his view from the Jefferson-designed Capitol.

"In church when I was younger I'd always sit in the back pew," says Nardo. "In the chamber I sat in the back for 10 years. Now I'm standing up with the speakers."

"I've been at the eye of the storm for a while now, and it's a pretty good view."

President Emeritus Timothy J. Sullivan ’66 and Anne Klare Sullivan ’66, M.Ed. ’68, M.A. ’73, Ed.D. ’86 led the William & Mary Homecoming Parade along with Mark McCormack’s ’51, L.H.D. ’97 grandchildren.

Sullivans Star in Brand-New Parade Route

Former President and First Lady Lead the Parade in Tribe Style

The couple who led William & Mary into the 21st century led this year's Homecoming Parade as its 2011 Grand Marshals. Timothy J. Sullivan '66 and Anne Klare Sullivan '66, M.Ed. '68, M.A. '73, Ed.D. '86 were selected to lead the annual Homecoming Parade by the Alumni Association's Board of Directors in March.

"We were delighted," Tim says. "It's as much fun as it is an honor."

The College of William & Mary's annual Homecoming parade was the product of several changes this year, including an adjustment in time and location. The parade moved to Friday, Oct. 21 at 4:30 p.m. and began in front of William & Mary Hall. It wound its way past freshman residence halls, through campus and along Richmond Road until it ended near the staging point at the intramural fields. The new parade route provided alumni and families with more places to watch the parade on campus while exposing more students to the excitement and activity of the long-standing tradition. Alumni, community members and students lined the new parade route, with the Sadler Center and William & Mary Hall serving as two new informal gathering points for the afternoon spectators.

The Sullivans rode along with grandchildren of the late Mark McCormack '51, L.H.D. '97, the pioneering sports agent and lawyer. The parade, Tim says, "is visible evidence of great Tribe spirit. It's a spirit that stretches back from students to [the College's] most venerable alumni." The Sullivans rode in 14 parades while Tim was president.

Tim, affectionately known as "Timmy J." by students, was the 25th president of the College from 1992-2005. Prior to serving in the Brafferton, he served in the U.S. Army Signal Corps, with the office of Gov. Charles Robb, and as a professor and dean at the William & Mary Law School. Anne is a clinical psychologist and inaugurated the President's Collection of Faculty and Student Art while William & Mary's first lady.

After overseeing the College's 300th anniversary celebration in 1993, Tim spent his presidency strengthening the College's commitment to undergraduate education and scholarship. He was an outspoken advocate of the state's role in higher education and led successful efforts to increase William & Mary's control over its own destiny. Under his guidance, the College's endowment rose from less than $150 million to more than $400 million. After departing his role in the Braffetron, he became president and chief executive officer of the Mariner's Museum in Newport News, Va. until 2009.

At the time of his retirement from the College in June 2005, Rector Susan Aheron Magill '72 said "Tim Sullivan has demonstrated that nothing short of the best is acceptable." After another successful Homecoming parade, the Sullivans were also excited to have enjoyed "a great renewal of friendships that are very important to us."

Additional reporting by Megan M. Morrow.
View more photos at www.wmalumni.com/photogallery, or visit wmpix.org to purchase class photos.

New Staff

After early attempts to become chief engineer of the starship Enterprise, successor to Nemo as captain of the Nautilus and super spygadget developer extraordinaire alongside James Bond’s “Q”, Del Putnam started developing software on a Wang 2200 at age 10. This eventually led to his career as a software professional spanning two decades, three start-ups and positions ranging from software developer to chief technology officer.

Del grew up in Williamsburg and has a strong connection to the area. His mother worked in Colonial Williamsburg for 30 years and his father was a chemistry professor at William & Mary. This past September, Del joined the Alumni Association as web manager where he works as a developer for the Association’s website and new media endeavors.

Del holds a degree in computer science and lives in Newport News with his wife, Donje, their children, Caroline and Chandler, one large loveable mutt and a smaller dachshund with a Napoleon complex.

Cristen McQuillan joined the William & Mary Alumni Association in August 2011 as the assistant director of Alumni House rentals and facilities. Cristen graduated cum laude with a B.S. in advertising and public relations with a business minor in 2009 from Grand Valley State University in Michigan. Cristen started her career at HUB International, where she assisted with advertising design, event execution and project management. After moving to Virginia in August 2010 she joined the William & Mary staff working as assistant to the director of special events for Tribe athletics.

A life-long volleyball player, she also enjoys tennis, the beach, reading on her Kindle™, playing video games with her husband, Aaron, and shopping. Cristen and Aaron reside in Yorktown.

Alumni Around the Country

President Taylor Reveley with Rector Jeffrey Trammell ’73 and Joseph Plumeri ’66 at a reception honoring Mr. Plumeri’s position as Grand Marshal of the 2011 Columbus Day Parade in New York City.
Linda Mahoney ’85, Emily Flynn, Jason Flynn M.B.A ’10 and Jeffrey Baines ’93 at the North Florida Alumni Chapter’s Taste of Virginia Reception. Virginia wines were sampled and current Flat Hats were available to keep alumni up on campus news.

Call for Alumni Medallion Award Nominees

The Alumni Medallion is the highest and most prestigious award the William & Mary Alumni Association can bestow on a graduate of the College. This award recognizes individuals who have exemplary accomplishments in their professional life, service to the community, state or nation, and loyalty and commitment to the College. The Board will consider all three areas in selecting Medallion recipients. However, there may be an occasion when they consider an individual based on extraordinary achievement in only one or two areas. The Board will make this year’s selection at their fall meeting in 2012.

Nominations must be submitted on the form provided by the Alumni Association. It can be downloaded from the Alumni Association’s website at here or it can be requested by calling 757.221.7855 or emailing alumni.evp@wm.edu. Include any news articles, vitae, biographical sketches and so on that are available as supporting documents; they are important in determining selections. Up to two supporting letters may be included with the nomination. Incomplete nominations will not be considered. Deadline for submission of all nominations for the 2013 awards is July 1, 2012. Read more about the 2012 Alumni Medallion recipients here.

2011 Board of Directors Election Results

The William & Mary Alumni Association Board of Directors welcomes its newest members, as determined in the recent election. They will begin their four-year terms in March 2012. A fifth board member will be appointed before the new term begins.

  • Christopher Adkins ’95, Ph.D. ’09, Williamsburg, Va.
  • J. Thomas Flesher ’73, San Francisco, Calif.
  • Elyce C. Morris ’98, San Diego, Calif.
  • Kevin J. Turner ’95, South Riding, Va.

Also passed was an amendment to the bylaws that changed the number of signatures required to secure a nomination on an election ballot, outside of normal nomination procedures, from 2 percent of the voting population to no fewer than 300. Thank you to the more than 7,200 alumni who cast votes in this election, the first to allow all alumni to vote. If you know someone that would like to be on the Alumni Board, please consider nominating them. The form and nominating committee members can be found here.

Instinctive Pitch

Watch Out for Soccer Star Mallory Schaffer '13 -- She's Not Done Yet

Don’t let the woolen boots fool you: Mallory Schaffer ’13 is a serious soccer player. For one thing, she is the 2011 CAA Player of the Year. For another, she captained the College’s first conference championship team since 2003 and its 10th overall. The team now has the third-most appearances in the NCAA Tournament in the nation, trailing only North Carolina and Connecticut.

“The team is extremely dedicated to the sport but also to maintaining integrity outside of soccer,” says Schaffer. “A lot of girls have really interesting fields of study and, while soccer is extremely important to us, we try to keep our futures in mind.”

As a player, Schaffer typically plays the distributive playmaking center midfielder, even though she does enjoy scoring goals. Her 17 goals were the most in the conference this season, one of which came in overtime during the CAA tournament final against Virginia Commonwealth.

Head coach John Daly — the CAA’s Coach of the Year — moved her from midfield to forward to try and add some height inside the box.

“Our team really worked hard this year and really gelled,” Schaffer says. “It would have been a huge upset if we didn’t clinch the conference because of all the work we put in together. I just happened to be the one who scored the goal.” Daly’s style of play is rapid-fire. Schaffer describes it as “a lot of quick one-two touches, lots of quick passes, and moving the ball a lot rather than having a lot of people just dribble selfishly.” It served them well: the Tribe entered the national tournament ranked No. 14, paired with No. 18 North Carolina in Chapel Hill, N.C. While the Tar Heels won, 4-1 on their home field, Schaffer has a lot of hope for the next campaign.

“As a team we’ll be even stronger next year,” says Schaffer. “We lose four seniors but I think we’ll still have a lot of returning players. With one more year of experience, I really think we can have a repeat of this year and even more.”

In high school, she played guard on her basketball team and still shoots the ball occasionally. Roundball skills like her vertical jump come in handy while the soccer ball is in the air too; Schaffer considers taking headers as one of her primary strengths as a player.

“Heading is a mentality thing of wanting to attack the ball in the air,” she says. “Having basketball experience jumping helps to get that timing down and I kind of pride myself in winning airballs.”

The Tribe women’s soccer team celebrates its victory in the 2011 CAA Championship Game.

Off the field, Schaffer joins her teammates in having fascinating fields of study at the College. Before her junior season began, she took the MCAT in preparation to go to med school — far earlier than the typical prospective medical student.

“I wanted to get it out of the way,” she says. “I took all the necessary classes. I just wanted to get it under my belt and be able to focus this year on soccer and academics. [The MCAT] was pretty rough.”

That isn’t to say, though, that Schaffer and her teammates are all-business, all-the-time, however. Every year, the upperclass players give new freshmen nicknames, which can range from the historic (goalkeeper Katherine Yount ’13 is “Wampo” after the old College mascot) to the obscure.

“My nickname is Rudy,” says Schaffer, “after the Claymation reindeer.”

Maybe the woolen boots aren’t such a bad idea after all.

Grimes Continues To Win Awards

Senior running back Jonathan Grimes ’12 was selected as the 2011 Colonial Athletic Association Special Teams Player of the Year, while he and six other Tribe players garnered allconference honors based on voting by the league's 11 head coaches. Grimes increased his career total to 11 and is the most-decorated player in conference history. A three-time first-team all-conference selection at running back, Grimes was also honored as the league's special teams player of the year twice (2010, 2011) as well as its offensive rookie of the year (2009). A music major, Grimes will graduate in December.

Botetourt Auction To Be Held Feb. 3

During Charter Day Weekend, the Tribe Club will hold its signature event, the Lord Botetourt Auction, on Feb. 3 in Miller Hall of the Mason School of Business. Auction lots will include athletic memorabilia, beach house rentals, fine jewelry, traveling on a private jet and a tour of Pixar headquarters. For more information, contact Lisa Starbuck at 757.221.1599 or lastar@wm.edu, or visit www.tribeclub.com.

Cross Country Teams Place Well At CAAs

W&M’s women’s cross country team finished second Oct. 29 at the 2011 Colonial Athletic Association Championships, totalling 45 points to James Madison’s 32. The Tribe was led once again by sophomore Elaina Balouris ’14 (Allison Park, Pa.), who finished second overall in 21:43. The men’s cross country team successfully defended its Colonial Athletic Association Championship the same day, scoring 27 points to win the conference title for the 12th year in a row.

Ed Moran ’03 Takes 10th in Debut at ING New York Marathon

William & Mary alum Ed Moran ’03, M.P.P. ‘05, M.B.A. ’11 ran his first-ever marathon Nov. 6 at the ING New York Marathon with a 10th-place finish. Moran’s time was well under the automatic qualifying standard for both the U.S. Olympic Trials, in Houston in January, as well as for the London Olympic Games next summer.

This fall, the Flat Hat asked “Is It Our Turn?” of the Tribe’s basketball programs. At this early stage, it’s hard to tell: after a dismal 2010-11 campaign, the women’s team started 4-2 —including a big win at Virginia Tech -- while the promising men’s team opened 1-6. Tony Shaver and Debbie Taylor ’86 return to the helms for what might just be historic seasons.


vs VCU



The Rams can’t sneak up on anyone after last year’s Final Four run. VCU managed to hold onto head coach Shaka Smart, though, and lure former Tribe assistant Jamion Christian into the fold as well. Preseason all-conference forward Quinn McDowell ’12 will need to play his usual brand of ball to make a dent in VCU’s armor: that means playing hard on both ends of the court, inside and outside the paint.




Tunnel traffic never stops the Monarch faithful from packing Kaplan Arena when ODU comes to town. After coming back early from an injury, Monarch Kent Bazemore will star for a team that nearly beat national runner- up Butler in the first round of the 2011 NCAA Tournament. Coach Blaine Taylor, however, no longer competes with Shaver for best CAA coach mustache.




Some had the Dragons as preseason favorites to win the CAA with their grinding style of play. Others might note senior Chris Fouch’s Tribe-like penchant for three-pointers. W&M forward JohnMark Ludwick ’12 will need to watch for inevitable rebounds while taking careful aim from beyond the three-point line. As always, Tribe ball is about the three.





The Rams can’t sneak up on anyone after last year’s Final Four run. VCU managed to hold onto head coach Shaka Smart, though, and lure former Tribe assistant Jamion Christian into the fold as well. Preseason all-conference forward Quinn McDowell ’12 will need to play his usual brand of ball to make a dent in VCU’s armor: that means playing hard on both ends of the court, inside and outside the paint.




Tunnel traffic never stops the Monarch faithful from packing Kaplan Arena when ODU comes to town. After coming back early from an injury, Monarch Kent Bazemore will star for a team that nearly beat national runner- up Butler in the first round of the 2011 NCAA Tournament. Coach Blaine Taylor, however, no longer competes with Shaver for best CAA coach mustache.




Some had the Dragons as preseason favorites to win the CAA with their grinding style of play. Others might note senior Chris Fouch’s Tribe-like penchant for three-pointers. W&M forward JohnMark Ludwick ’12 will need to watch for inevitable rebounds while taking careful aim from beyond the three-point line. As always, Tribe ball is about the three.

Accounting Program Gift a “Game Changer”

Endowment focuses on faculty fellowships, student scholarship, curriculum innovation

Alan B. Miller Hall is the home of the Mason School of Business and the Accounting Program.

This fall, William & Mary received a significant gift for the Accounting Program at the Mason School of Business. In October, the Mason School announced a gift from Frank J. Wood ’74 to endow the Frank J. Wood ’74 Excellence in Accounting Endowment at the Mason School.

The Wood Endowment includes:

The Frank J. Wood ’74 Faculty Fellowships, which will recognize and reward tenure-track faculty with summer faculty fellowship research awards. Peer institutions offer similar rewards for faculty research, and the Mason School’s ability to offer these opportunities will enhance the accounting faculty’s development — and by implication, their effectiveness in the classroom — giving faculty members incentive to remain and grow at William & Mary instead of leaving to advance their careers at other institutions.

The Frank J. Wood ’74 Master’s in Accounting Scholarships, which will attract outstanding students. Top accounting programs have positioned themselves wisely, offering incentives to the best students who enroll in their programs. This gift will enable the accounting program to do the same, which is essential for the Mason School to compete.

Program Curriculum Differentiators, which will offer curriculum enhancements and explore new possibilities that bring innovation to the accounting program. One example is the Global Mindset Experience. This proposed elective course, with limited enrollment, will offer students interactions with international universities and companies, will allow the Mason School to invite speakers from around the globe, and will give students the chance to visit different locations and meet with companies in foreign locales.

“William & Mary is deeply grateful for Frank’s wonderful support over many years,” said President Taylor Reveley. “His most recent and extraordinarily generous gift to our Accounting Program will take an already excellent program and truly kick it into high gear.”

Referring to a “special connection he has with William & Mary,” Wood said he made the gift because he was in a position to make a difference and wanted his gift to have an impact at a “school that was on a good course.”

“This gift is a game-changer for our accounting program,” said Mason School Dean Lawrence B. Pulley ’74. “This gift will boost the morale of our faculty, help to entice the best students to attend and enhance our curriculum in ways that are virtually limitless.”

Wood is chief financial officer and executive vice president of Alpha Natural Resources Inc., in Abingdon, Va., the third largest coal producer in the United States. He currently serves on the Accounting Programs Board at the Mason School. His generosity to William & Mary spans more than 36 years, including gifts to name the accounting program office in Alan B. Miller Hall, and support of the Sadler Student Affairs Fund and William & Mary Athletics through the Tribe Club.

Since the accounting program’s inception in the late 1940s, its quality has been affirmed by numerous accolades and by the success of its students. Most recently, for the second consecutive year, the Mason School’s accounting undergraduate and graduate programs have been ranked No. 1 in their cohorts by the Public Accounting Report’s 29th Annual Survey of Accounting Professors. The graduate program was also ranked 22nd overall, up three spots from the year before.

“Six years ago, I joined the Accounting Programs Board through Dean Pulley and I had an opportunity to learn more about what the school’s needs are. As a result of my success in business, I found myself in the position to make a difference and so I did it. Accounting was instrumental to my career and I want to give this opportunity to the next generation,” said Wood.

“Frank has made a large, positive difference in the world of business and now he is having a huge impact on us. We are honored by his generosity and commitment and deeply appreciate his partnership as a member of our Accounting Programs Board,” said Pulley.

In recalling his undergraduate experience at the College, Wood highlighted the School of Business’s great reputation in the tax challenge competitions and the wonderful opportunities that the CPATrek afforded the master of accounting students. He said his intention is to enable these kinds of unique experiences in other areas in the accounting program.

“I know my gift will have an impact and know that it will be managed well,” Wood said.

Sultan Qaboos bin Said Professorship in Middle East Studies

Minister al-Busaidiyah and President Reveley establish the professorship in the Wren.

A major component of the Wood Accounting Endowment provides support for faculty. Another significant gift for William & Mary that was also announced in October will also go a long way toward providing support for the College’s faculty thanks to a gift from the Sultan Qaboos bin Said of Oman that establishes a professorship in Middle East Studies.

On Oct. 24, the College welcomed Dr. Rawi bint Saud al-Busaidiyah, Oman’s minister of higher education and Her Excellency Hunaina Sultan al-Mughairy, Oman’s ambassador to the United States, to celebrate a gift establishing the Sultan Qaboos bin Said Professorship in Middle East Studies.

The fully-funded, endowed professorship will “encourage the depth and breadth of international education across the broad range of subjects encompassed by the study of Middle East Studies” and will help support the faculty’s wide-ranging teaching and research on aspects of Middle Eastern culture. The position caps this fall’s introduction of the newly-designed, multidisciplinary Asian and Middle Eastern Studies Program.

“This professorship will make an enormous contribution to the College’s ongoing efforts to promote greater international knowledge and understanding,” said Stephen Hanson, vice provost for international affairs and director of the Reves Center for International Studies. “We are truly grateful to His Majesty the Sultan for this generous gift to Middle Eastern studies, which will do so much to deepen our students’ understanding of the history and culture of this crucial world region.”

A true celebration of culture and history, the event honored the rich past and focus on education shared by the Sultanate of Oman and the College.

“It is indeed a great honor to be here at the College of William & Mary,” said Minister al-Busaidiyah. “It is in keeping with the values and traditions [of the College] and to honor the historic legacy of His Majesty Sultan Qaboos that the Sultan of Oman has endowed this professorship.”

At a formal ceremony in the Blue Room of the College’s Wren Building, William & Mary President Taylor Reveley and Minister al-Busaidiyah signed the agreement to establish the professorship.

“This can be looked upon as only the beginning of closer ties in education and research and a lasting friendship based on knowledge and understanding,” said Her Excellency Hunaina Sultan al-Mughairy, ambassador to the United States.

“This gift is simply marvelous,” Reveley said at the event. “Today, we celebrate the Sultan’s commitment to higher education and our mutual efforts to enhance and extend global cultural heritage for the benefit of all peoples. William & Mary is enormously grateful for the Sultan’s transformative generosity. We look forward to the continuing achievements of our faculty members and students in the important area of Middle Eastern studies.”

Sarah Kolbe '06 believes she looked at around 10,000 clam fossils at William & Mary, part of a senior honors project under the mentorship of paleontologist Rowan Lockwood, an associate professor in the Department of Geology. The two continued to collaborate Kolbe graduated and Kolbe's honors project grew into a major paper published this year in the prestigious journal Paleobiology.

The paper addresses an important evolutionary question: Why do some species survive extinction events and other species don't?

Lockwood and Kolbe looked at species on either side of the two-million-year-old clam-killing upheaval known as the Plio-Pleistocene extinction. They found when it comes to surviving the stresses of major extinction events, one size -- or shape -- definitely does not fit all.

“Having that variety of forms — fat, thin, more elongated or not — might make you more able to deal with environmental change during an extinction event.”

"It didn't look like there was any one type of shape that was best," Kolbe said, "but a species with more morphological variation -- one that had individuals with different kinds of shapes -- tended to be more likely to survive."

The researchers concentrated their study on 14 pairs of clam species. One species of each pair died out during the Plio-Pleistocene extinction. The extinct species was matched up with a close relative that survives to this day.

"We looked at a victim species and a survivor species," Lockwood explains. She acknowledges that differences among clams of different species are pretty subtle. "When I first started working on them I couldn't tell one clam from another," she said. "But there are differences in size and thickness, differences in the shape of the teeth in the hinge. All of these things -- once you stare at them for a little while -- start to become more obvious."

Once they had their 14 pairs of target species identified, Lockwood and Kolbe started looking at the individuals of each species. Supported by a Chappell Fellowship from William & Mary's Roy R. Charles Center during her senior year, Kolbe collected clam fossils from a Florida quarry. Lockwood describes it as "basically 3-5 meters deep, and the entire thing covers probably two square miles and it's jam-packed with shell."

Kolbe did all the measuring and tallying -- around 100 clams of each target species -- at William & Mary. After graduation, Kolbe did a Fulbright Fellowship at a Danish geological museum, then entered a paleontology Ph.D. program at the University of Cincinnati; she expects to defend her dissertation in the summer.

Sarah Kolbe ’06 delves meters-deep into a clam-rich Florida quarry.

She was busy, but Kolbe found time to work with Lockwood on her clam project. After all the numbers were sliced and diced, it was clear that when extinction looms, diversity rules -- at least among the clams of two million years ago. There could be a combination of reasons to explain the survivorship rate of species with greater morphological variability, compared to species whose individuals are more uniform.

"Having that variety of forms -- fat, thin, more elongate or not -- might make you more able to deal with environmental change during an extinction event," Kolbe explained. "Some of those forms might be more able to succeed in the new environment than others."

Lockwood suggests that the variability apparent in the fossilized shells might mean that the survivor species have more variability in their DNA.

"More genetic variation makes you much more bombproof when things like climate change or overharvesting or something like that happens," Lockwood said. "Sarah's paper is the first one to look at this quantitatively in the fossil record."

Lockwood says "Sarah's paper" because her former student is the first author. Gene Hunt of the Smithsonian Institution is also a contributor. The paper, "Does morphological variation buffer against extinction? A test using veneroid bivalves from the Plio-Pleistocene of Florida," is generating a lot of buzz in evolutionary circles. One reviewer wrote, "This paper is (to my knowledge) the first to empirically assess the relationship between intraspecific variation and survival across an extinction event. It stands to make a significant contribution to the evolutionary literature."

The fossils in the study are close relatives of littlenecks, cherrystones and other common food clams. The collaborators are divided on the edibility question. Lockwood says, "It never hurts to be able to eat your study organism," while Kolbe will stick with the fossils.

"I think they're kinda rubbery," she says. "I'm not too into them."


Wait Sonya (Adonai Group Inc., 2011) by Andrea Velox-Andrews M.A. ’78 is a tale of a young girl learning patience from her mother. As Sonya finds that not everything is available to her right away, she finds that good things are worth the wait. Written while she was a single mother and graduate student at the College, Velox’s book is published under the auspices of Turning the World Around Prophetic Word Ministries.


Collaboration for Inquiry-Based Learning: School Librarians and Teachers Partner for Student Achievement (Libraries Unlimited, 2011) by Virginia L. Wallace and Whitney Norwood Husid ’85 is a guidebook for teachers and librarians to utilize their relative strengths to improve the classroom experience for 21st-century students. The authors center the book on research collaboration and the latest technology while leaving room for state standards of learning and Web integration.


D.R. Hildebrand’s ’03 Walking Marina (Dog Ear Publishing, 2011) brings readers into the world of Danny Ward, a steel-worker-turned-model under the bright lights of Manhattan. As Danny sinks deeper into the gargantuan modeling business, he starts to question the ethics of the industry and gets drawn into the scene’s underworld. When he begins to exercise with a mysterious woman named Marina, everything begins to change.

Cynthia L. Miller M.B.A. ’91 takes her readers into the Williamsburg of 1774 in Fused Loyalties: A Novel of Mystery and Intrigue During the Reign of His Majesty King George III (Colonial Craftsmen Press, 2011). As a work of historical fiction, Miller weaves the facts along with the invention to create a tale of a man posing as a W&M professor, but harboring a secret mission hidden from his students. As the revolution grows and spreads, this man’s mission becomes even more important to the British Empire.


Based on a true story, The Reservoir (Other Press, 2011) is a of trust and betrayal on the streets of Rich- mond, Va. John Milliken Thompson M.A. ’83 creates the lives of two brothers in love with a woman who appears to have committed suicide under mysterious circumstances. This is the first novel for Thompson, who has written previously on the trails and wilderness of the upper South.


Clayton Crockett ’91 dives into the complicated relationship between politics and religion in Radical Political Theology (Columbia University Press, 2011). Throughout the course of his book, Crockett explores the changing landscape of theology as it intermingled with politics and eroded liberalism in the second half of the 20th century. Tackling this complex topic requires pulling from numerous schools of political and religious thought, including those of Derrida and Spinoza.


Padma Venkatraman M.A. ’94, Ph.D. ’01 explores coastal islands in the Indian Ocean through the eyes of 15-year-old Uido in Island’s End (G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 2011). As Uido strives to lead her tribe in the face of the 2004 tsunami, she attempts to balance her beliefs with age-old tribal customs. Venkatraman’s VIMS degree helped bring realism to the book, as she paints a realistic picture of her setting. Her first book, Climbing the Stairs, garnered a starred review in Booklist.

Casting aside traditional adolescent awkwardness, Melissa Daly ’99 shows teenagers 87 Ways to Throw a Killer Party (Zest Books, 2011). A former editor for Seventeen, Daly finds party themes in every corner of the teen experience, and gives background on each of them as well as food, drink and entertainment suggestions. Daly even took time to point out to the Alumni Magazine that some of the party themes are inspired by her days at W&M.

Please send publicity materials for alumni- and faculty-authored works to: William & Mary Alumni Magazine, P.O. Box 2100, Williamsburg, VA 23187.

Awarded every year since 1934, the Alumni Medallion is the highest and most prestigious award given by the William & Mary Alumni Association. It is now presented annually during Charter Day Weekend. Alumni Medallion recipients have distinguished themselves through exemplary professional accomplishments, service to the community, state or nation, and loyalty and dedication to the College of William & Mary.

This year, the Alumni Association honors three esteemed leaders — individuals who represent the ideals of William & Mary’s founders and what the College has stood for during its revered history — Joseph S. Agee ’52, M.Ed. ’56, Ruth Weimer Tillar ’45 and Henry C. Wolf ’64, J.D. ’66. The award ceremony, which is open to the public, will take place on Saturday of Charter Day weekend, Feb. 4, at 10 a.m. in the Sadler Center.

Nominations for the 2013 Alumni Medallion Awards are due by July 1, 2012. For nomination forms or more information on the 2012 recipients, visit www.wmalumni.com/?awards.


’52, M.ED. ’56

“This means more to me than words can express. It is just awesome.”

Student, athlete, soldier, teacher, coach and so much more. For more than 60 years, Joe Agee’s eyes have been fixed on William & Mary. And those eyes have seen the College from almost every possible angle. Agee began his view of William & Mary in the late-1940s at the Norfolk campus, finishing his two-year degree in 1950 before being selected to finish his bachelor’s degree in physical education in 1952 at the College’s main Williamsburg campus, where he played baseball and basketball. In 1956, he completed his master of education degree.

In 1958 the view changed for Agee. Following active duty with the U.S. Marines during the Korean War, he returned to campus to coach football and basketball. He went on to coach baseball, soccer and golf (as head coach for 35 years — from 1964 to 1999). In 1976, Agee was inducted into the W&M Athletic Hall of Fame, the home dugout at Plumeri Park is named in his honor and the golf team recognizes his contribution at the annual Joe Agee Invitational golf tournament.

Agee’s influence wasn’t limited to the field, however, as he taught physical education courses (kinesiology) to many W&M students before retiring in 1992. During that stretch, he even found time to referee basketball games in the ACC, head the Athletic Education Foundation for one year and serve as the executive director of the W&M Athletic Foundation (now the Tribe Club) in the early 1980s.

In 1983 during Homecoming, Agee, his father and son were recognized for their three generations of membership in the Order of the White Jacket, an organization that he helped Howard M. Smith Jr. ’43 form in 1972. He was also extremely proud to be chosen as the Commencement Marshal by the class of 1992 and as Homecoming Grand Marshals with his beloved wife Eloise Bryant Agee ’53, in 2009.



“This prestigious honor is a beautiful symbol of my 70 years of love for the College.”

One of the most active and loyal alumnae of William & Mary, Ruth Tillar has not missed a single W&M Homecoming since graduating in 1945 — that makes 65 to date. On numerous occasions, Tillar has served the class of ’45 as their class reporter and four times as reunion chair, never having missed a reunion. She also assisted as area chairperson for the Campaign for the College and a campaign chair for the W&M Alumni House Fund, marking her involvement with three W&M capital campaigns.

Her enthusiasm and passion for all things William & Mary make her a remarkable ambassador for the College — the embodiment of the spirit of William & Mary. The former Flat Hat editor and Kappa Alpha Theta sister was a 2003 recipient of the Alumni Service Award and received the 2007 Olde Guarde Distinguished Service Award. Tillar is a member of the Robert Boyle Society, The Fourth Century Club and the President’s Council, and a former president of the Olde Guarde. She also established the Ruth Weimer Tillar ’45 Student Prize Award.

Her verve and passion, however, extend beyond the bounds of William & Mary. The number of organizations that Tillar has been involved with are numerous: the Hicksford Chapter of the National Society Daughters of the American Revolution, Emporia Rotary Club, Emporia Industrial Development Authority, Emporia Presbyterian Church, Emporia-Greensville Airport Commission, member of the board of directors for the Village View Foundation for Emporia- Greensville, the Civic Center Foundation for W.T. Tillar Co., Colonial Williamsburg, Raleigh Tavern Society, Goodwin Society, president of the Emporia Book Club, president of the Riparian Women’s Club of Emporia and president of the Southern Virginia Regional Medical Center Auxiliary.

Tillar has won countless awards, including the Emporia Chamber of Commerce 2004 Lifetime Achievement Award, the 1989 Beta Sigma Phi Sorority International Distinguished Service Award and the 1997 Presbyterian Women Honorary Life Membership.

With southside Virginia and William & Mary as her adopted family, Tillar is a selfless, tireless woman dedicated to making a difference in her community and the world around her.


’64, J.D. ’66

“I am deeply honored. Our College will always hold a special place in my heart.”

Henry Wolf is a devoted alumnus, great supporter and a frequent promoter of William & Mary. His lifelong relationship with the College started in 1960 when he began pursuing a bachelor’s degree in economics. He continued his education at the Marshall-Wythe Law School and completed his law degree in 1966. In 2006, the Law School named its renovated and expanded library the Wolf Law Library.

In addition to his W&M degrees, Wolf also holds an M.B.A. from Louisiana State University and a master's of law degree from Georgetown. In 1992, he completed the Harvard Advanced Management Program at the Harvard Business School.

Wolf was first appointed to William & Mary’s Board of Visitors in 2003 and served as vice rector (2006-2009) and as rector (2009- 2011). Wol f is also an emeri tus member of the Virginia Institute of Marine Science Council and was an original board member of the William & Mary Real Estate Foundation. In 2010, Wolf proudly welcomed the Class of 2014 to campus during the traditional Convocation Ceremony on his 50th anniversary of entering the College as a student.

Following a career that spanned more than 34 years at Norfolk Southern Corporation, Wolf retired in 2007 as vice chairman and chief financial officer. Prior to joining Norfolk Southern as a tax attorney in 1973, Wolf served as a law clerk for the United States Tax Court and an attorney for the Internal Revenue Service. He also served four years in the U.S. Army, attaining the rank of captain in the Judge Advocate General’s Corps.

Wolf is a member of the American Bar Association and Virginia Bar Association. He serves on the Board of Trustees of the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation and is a member of the boards of directors of AGL Resources, Inc. and Hertz Global Holdings, Inc.




ATLANTA – In a corner office high above Peachtree Street, Bill Hoffmann ’67, J.D. ’77 is waiting for a phone call. In this case, it’s coming from The Hague in the Netherlands, but it could be Burundi or Sierra Leone, Brazil or just Washington, D.C. But the phone will ring.

Bill Hoffman on the benefits of pro bono work to a law firm.

Hoffmann is pro bono partner at King and Spalding (K&S), Atlanta’s largest and most prominent law firm, housed in a shining glass skyscraper in the Midtown district and in 16 other offices in New York, London, Riyadh, Geneva and around the world. He coordinates the free legal work King and Spalding’s 800 lawyers do for clients who otherwise would lack representation. He also works with local nonprofit agencies who share his commitment to justice.

“The entire justice system doesn’t make any sense if only some people have access to it,” says fellow K&S partner Courtland Reichman. “It only makes sense if everybody has equal access to justice. [Hoffmann] cares so much about it because that’s what it’s all about. It’s about making sure everybody gets a fair shake in the legal system no matter what their crime or station in life is. It is a critically, fundamentally important thing.”

Since beginning his legal career, Hoffmann has explored whatever realm of law was needed to take care of the underprivileged; his clients, as well, have traveled wherever necessary to find justice.

There was a time, though, when Hoffmann preferred basketball.

NORTH“I was a basketball fanatic,” says Hoffmann of his college years. “I wasted away my college experience playing pickup basketball when I should have been studying.”

He had come to Williamsburg from Albany, Ga., the center of peanut country in the United States, where Hoffmann also developed an interest in politics at the family dinner table. When the time came to choose a college, he had planned to study government.

“I wanted to go ‘north’ to college,” Hoffman, a Kappa Sig, says. “So that’s why I went to William & Mary.”

Soon, plans changed — although Hoffmann still gathers his basketball friends whenever the Tribe comes to Atlanta.

“My favorite courses as a freshman were in philosophy,” he says, “so I decided to major in philosophy. I really liked it. I was influenced by my professors and I decided I wanted to be just like them.”

Bill on how his background in philosophy guided his career.

He went on to receive a philosophy Ph.D. at the University of Georgia, during which time he also got married. His first job was at Ithaca College in upstate New York, but options were limited. A friend’s husband had just finished law school and suddenly the doors of possibility swung open.

“I’ve always been a Southerner and I wanted to get back south.” The Hoffmanns were off to Williamsburg again.

SOUTHReturning to William & Mary with his wife, Sally, and a child on the way, Hoffmann buckled down as he adjusted to a different sort of court. At Marshall-Wythe, Hoffmann was No. 1 in his class and editor-in-chief of the William & Mary Law Review. He clerked for a federal judge in Philadelphia for a year before moving to a small firm back home in Georgia. This Atlanta firm is where Hoffmann began to take pro bono cases on the side.

He remembers: “One day I just called up the ACLU of Georgia and said, ‘I’m a new lawyer here and I want to do some pro bono work. I’d really like a First Amendment case if you’ve got one.’

“They probably hung up the phone laughing, because good First Amendment cases are the hardest things to find. A good First Amendment case is like gold.”

Bill on how his law firm won a Hugh Hefner Award.

His earliest pro bono work was obtaining a life sentence for a man convicted of murder and sentenced to death; shortly thereafter he helped reinstate two high school newspaper editors who protested censorship against them.

“I mean, I was a brand-new lawyer,” Hoffmann says. “I hardly knew what I was doing, and I think the gods were looking out for me in that I got good results in both cases. That plus the fact that I had good mentors and people to talk to.

“If I were to handle both of those cases today, I would do them a lot differently than I did then. But I probably wouldn’t have gotten a better result,” he says, smiling.

Bill enjoys both Pro Bono as well as paid corporate work.

Any lawyer who cuts his trial teeth on his early pro bono cases eventually finds his time usurped by close working relationships with paying clients in mid-career. Hoffmann, too, spent years cultivating work with K&S clients all over the country — in contrast to his early pro bono work with Atlanta’s underserved. He did still manage to take the occasional case.

One prominent pro bono case was that of Daniel Colwell, a promising college football player with a troubling history of mental illness. Unable to commit suicide, Colwell decided to force the state of Georgia to execute him by killing an elderly couple in a Wal-Mart parking lot in 1996. As intended, he was convicted and sentenced to death.

Hoffmann found the case thanks to the Georgia Resource Center, an organization that he today serves on its board of directors.

“We argued that there were errors in Colwell’s trial so the jury couldn’t adequately consider the evidence,” says Hoffmann. “But Daniel was still very schizophrenic. While we were representing him, trying to get him a new trial, he also got a lawyer to represent him to try and get him executed as quickly as possible. One day [Colwell] would take one position and the next day he’d take the other.”

A judge — considering which of the two lawyers would represent Colwell in an upcoming habeas corpus hearing — ruled in favor of the other lawyer, while simultaneously continuing to allow Hoffmann and his team access to their client. A month later, Colwell hanged himself in his jail cell.

“[Death penalty cases] are kind of the ultimate in the practice of law in terms of something that keeps you up at night,” says Hoffmann. “You think about it all the time. My mindset is, on one hand, there’s nothing more satisfying and on the other hand more annoying than thinking through a complicated legal issue … It becomes amplified when it’s a matter of life and death, but even if it’s not, it’s something that’s always with you.”

"There are always three cases…"

Then, things started to shift yet again.

A major client changed its strategy from litigating its disputes — with Bill handling the expert witnesses for all the cases — to simply settling out of court. Suddenly it was back to the drawing board.

“I thought I needed to go back and find business for my [paying] practice,” he says of that time in his career. “Or do I?”

EASTIn 2008, Hoffmann proposed to the K&S management that they join in the growing nationwide trend of large firms establishing a full-time dedicated pro bono partner. He also suggested that they name him as that partner. They agreed.

Bill explains that corporate clients care about Pro Bono work.

As K&S’s pro bono partner, he’s also the point man when the firm gets a call they don’t know how to handle. When the call came from the Special Court for Sierra Leone, the K&S Washington, D.C., office called Hoffmann. After asking around and realizing none of the other partners wanted to take on the case, he volunteered himself.

While in Sierra Leone interviewing witnesses for his Charles Taylor investigation, Hoffmann (third from left) poses with his interpreter (far left) and an investigator with children in a local village.

The case was of a man who testified against former Liberian dictator Charles Taylor, who had interfered horrifically in the Sierra Leone Civil War. Taylor’s vice president subsequently sued the man for defamation. Hoffmann successfully assisted a Liberian law firm in defending him against the defamation charges.

His international work also took Hoffmann to Sierra Leone and Rwanda, where he pursued an investigation into witness tampering — an arena of law with which he had no previous experience.

Bill talks about how corporate and Pro Bono work are both very satisfying.

“He’s not the sort of person who is interested in being in the limelight,” says Sarah Geraghty, a senior attorney at the Southern Center for Human Rights. “He’s not looking for the ‘sexy’ case or the next case to get him in the newspaper — just the opposite. He takes cases that other lawyers wouldn’t take because it’s the right thing to do.”

“There are many people his age who are sort of settling in and thinking about golfing and vacations and stuff like that,” says the Southern Center’s Executive Director Sara Totonchi. “Bill is talking about doing election oversight in some remote area of Africa. To hear him talk about it, it’s the most exciting thing that he’s seen. I’ve never seen anything like it.”

WESTHoffmann, though, is most proud of winning asylum for a young Afghan client that experienced unspeakable tragedy on his way to the United States.

“A few days after his birth, his mother had a gathering of the women in the village in his home as is traditional there to celebrate his birth,” he says, choking up as he tells the story. “There was a Soviet bombing raid of the village at that time and his mother was killed by the bomb. He was being held in his mother’s arms —he has pieces of shrapnel in his skull to this day.”

The boy’s father fled with the family to Iran, but was forced to return to Afghanistan to renew their papers. While back home, his father was killed in a Taliban raid on the town and his sister was kidnapped. Without recourse, the young man fled to Iran and later to the United States, using the services of a human trafficker. Upon arriving at LAX, he turned himself in and was arrested for having forged documents and identity theft.

“Without immigration status here [in the U.S.] — nowadays especially — there’s only so far that you can get,” says Monica Modi Khant, director of the Georgia Asylum and Immigration Network (GAIN). “You really need representation.”

After six separate federal prisons, the Afghan man was preparing to be deported back to Afghanistan when Hoffmann found his case with the help of GAIN, which screens potential cases before matching them up with pro bono attorneys like Hoffmann. Though initially denied asylum based on a technicality, Hoffmann worked to secure “withholding of removal” — the next best thing — and eventually got his Afghan client asylum on appeal. Hoffmann now gets Father’s Day cards from his client, now working in Atlanta on Oriental rugs.

“When you win [the client’s] case, the change that you see in them is immediate,” says Khant, executive director of GAIN. “Now they’re working; they’re getting education. You can see that by helping them with their immigration case, how much that’s opened the doors for them. Bill has been one of our biggest proponents from the beginning.”

…it's important to live in a society that respects human rights...

“When he talks about his clients, it really is that compassion that comes through,” says Totonchi. “It’s not just a lawsuit or litigation; it’s human lives, and it’s people that he cares about. The outcome of whatever happens to that family or that individual in their life is of paramount importance to him. That’s abundantly clear in the way he represents them.”

By Sara Piccini

Walking beside the front wall of the Wren Building, Louise Lambert Kale — executive director of William & Mary’s Historic Campus and an honorary alumna — points out a small constellation of pockmarks in the bricks.

The marks are bullet holes, evidence of skirmishes between Union and Confederate troops that took place on the College campus throughout the Civil War.

Apart from these tiny scars on the Wren bricks, the campus retains little physical evidence of the enormous destruction wrought by the war. The Wren Building’s student guides, members of the select Spotswood Society, discuss the College’s Civil War history during their tours for visitors — in particular the 1862 fire set by Federal troops that gutted the building. As Kale notes, the Wren’s brick walls are actually warped from the multiple fires of the 18th and 19th centuries, but that warping is not visible to the casual observer.

With so little evidence of the Civil War era on today’s campus, it’s easy to forget the war’s impact on the history of William & Mary. If not for the efforts of a few loyal supporters in the war’s aftermath — in particular President Benjamin S. Ewell — it’s likely that the College would have moved from Williamsburg, merged with another institution or closed its doors forever.

‘As Bad as It Well Could Be’

Benjamin Ewell, a unionist before the Civil War and a West Point graduate, nevertheless remained loyal to the state of Virginia. He joined the Confederate Army as a colonel at the war’s start in 1861.

His mind remained on the College throughout the war, however. In October 1864, with the war in its last throes, he wrote to Board of Visitors member Hugh Blair Grigsby expressing his commitment to rebuilding the College and returning to his post as president.

What he found on returning to campus after the war was heart-breaking. “The material condition was as bad as it well could be,” he wrote in an autobiographical fragment several years later. “The Main [Wren] Building a ruin, the Brafferton gutted, the Steward’s Hall destroyed, the President’s House much pulled to pieces and all outhouses destroyed or carried off.” The occupying Union forces, in addition to setting fire to the Wren Building, had used most available wood from the College’s buildings, fences and other structures as fuel for cooking and heating.

Ewell found some room for hope. Some of the College’s moveable property — including the statue of Lord Botetourt — had been removed to the Eastern Lunatic Asylum (now Eastern State Hospital) for safekeeping and survived the war. As Professor Edwin Taliaferro reported to Ewell in a June 13, 1865 letter:

“The Philosophical apparatus has in a great degree been preserved uninjured, and a personal examination into the state of the Library satisfies me that the more valuable portion of the books have been saved and are now in good condition … [although] the works of fiction and light essays on miscellaneous subjects have in many cases been carried off to read in camps and barracks.”

And while Federal forces still occupied the campus, Union Gen. Benjamin Ludlow — using the damaged President’s House for his headquarters — promised “to put the faculty in possession of the Buildings and grounds in the event the College is reopened.”

Determined to do just that, Ewell gave an optimistic report in his first post-war meeting with the Board of Vis- itors on July 5-6, 1865. He lobbied the board successfully over the ensuing month — staving off the first of several attempts to move the College out of Williamsburg. William & Mary reopened in October 1865, with classes held in the Brafferton. The College’s matriculation book recorded 23 college students — including returning Confed- erate soldier Thomas Beverley Tucker — and 39 grammar school boys enrolled in the first academic year.

In addition to his duties as president and professor, Ewell, a trained engineer, took over general contracting responsibilities in the repair of the gutted Wren Building. After numerous delays, the restoration of the Wren was completed in October 1869 in time for the start of the new academic year. But the challenges for William & Mary were far from over.

‘A College in Name Only’

With all of Virginia suffering economically after the war, the Tidewater region recovered especially slowly. Student Robert Morton Hughes recalled arriving in Williamsburg in 1870 and finding Duke of Gloucester Street lined with barrooms: “The suffering and dejection of the inhabitants made them the only enterprises in town that prospered.”

Even before the war, William & Mary had struggled financial- ly, trying to recover from the loss of royal support following the American Revolution. After 1865, it became increasingly difficult for the College to secure enough students with the means to pay tuition and the desire to attend school in Williamsburg, which at that time even lacked access by railroad. It was harder still to find funds to make necessary repairs to campus buildings, hire faculty and repay the College’s debts.

“The Seven Wise Men” composed the entire 1888 faculty and are largely credited with helping to rebuild the academic standing of the College after the war.

For more than two decades after the war, Ewell devoted himself to fundraising in order to save his beloved College, attempting to solicit financial support from the state legislature, federal government, philanthropic foundations and wealthy individuals in England and the North. He obtained letters of endorsement from such prominent Northerners as Ulysses S. Grant and Henry Ward Beecher, drawing a hostile reaction from some of his fellow Southerners.

In all of his appeals, Ewell harkened back to the College’s Colonial era and its pivotal role in the founding of the nation, as illustrated in a letter Ewell wrote to Sen. Charles Sumner of Massachusetts on March 16, 1867, while on a visit to Washington, D.C.:

The enclosed Historical Sketch of the College of William and Mary until 1776 associated with Harvard as the joint distributor of the charity of Robert Boyle is most respectfully commended to the consideration of the Honble. Mr. Charles S. Sumner. Assuming that peace and harmony are soon to reign over the whole country ought the ruins of an Institution of Learning connected with some of America’s greatest names to remain a monument of civil strife? … The Virginians are too poor to rebuild this college, and it is intended to apply to the friends of education in the North regardless of party, and, if though expedient, to petition Congress for aid.*

The College made the first of numerous appeals to Congress in March 1867, asking for reparations to cover the $80,000 in estimated damages caused by Federal troops during the war. Despite garnering support from Northerners including former Union Gen. Benjamin Butler, combined with personal testimony and lobbying by Ewell, William & Mary could not overcome continued sectional and partisan acrimony in Congress. In 1878, for example, Republican Martin Townsend of New York voiced his opinion that William & Mary “sent her sons into rebellion; why shall she not take the consequences?”

With enrollment numbers falling throughout the 1870s and no reliable source of income, the Board of Visitors considered a number of alternatives to save the College, including moving the College to Richmond or Norfolk, or merging with the University of Virginia. In 1879, the University of the South at Sewanee, Tenn., proposed a merger that was supported by a group of prominent Southern Episcopalians who published a pamphlet calling William & Mary “a college in name only.”

Shortly afterward, as students of William & Mary history know well, the College did in fact become a college in name only — suspending classes during the “silent years” from 1881 to 1888.

In 1888, the College’s ongoing appeals to the Virginia state legislature finally bore fruit. The General Assembly approved a bill providing $10,000 annually to establish a teacher training program at William & Mary, setting in motion the College’s eventual transformation into a public university in 1906.

With the College’s immediate future secured, Ewell stepped down from the presidency at the age of 77. In 1893, just a year before his death, Congress finally approved a payment of $64,000 to the College as reparation for “the destruction of its buildings and other property without authority by soldiers of the United States during the late war.”

A New Look at the Past

Benjamin Ewell’s celebration of William & Mary’s Colonial era was carried on by his successors, culminating in the creation of today’s Historic Campus during the Colonial Williamsburg Restoration of the late 1920s and ’30s.

“When the College was struggling to get back on its feet, it needed the P.R. of the Colonial period,” says Louise Kale. “There was nothing in the 19th century to harken back to — the 19th century was a really, really rugged ride for William & Mary.”

As a result, the College’s difficult Civil War experience became obscured. In addition, the growing romanticization of the Confederate cause in the late 19th and early 20th centuries (including writings by William & Mary professor John Lesslie Hall) papered over the historical complexities of the war. The Civil War plaque that hangs in the Wren Building, erected in 1914, is a relic of this time. It bears an illustration of crossed Confederate and Virginia flags and is dedicated to “the memory of the professors and the students who left the College of William & Mary in May, 1861, and in patriotic devotion fought in defense of the Confederate States of America.”

The name of the one College student who fought for the Union, William Reynolds, was left off the plaque.

Today, with great advances in scholarship over the past few decades, we have a far better appreciation of the nuanced story of the Civil War. A number of initiatives at William & Mary are exploring the war’s compli- cated history, and highlighting the College’s own Civil War legacy:

• Swem Library has launched a project titled “From Fights to Rights: The Long Road to a More Perfect Union,” commemorating the 150th anniversary of the Civil War and the 50th anniversary of the Civil Rights Movement. The project runs from 2011-2015, and includes exhibits, the digitization of theses and dissertations on related topics, and a volunteer effort to transcribe manuscripts from the Civil War era (https://swem.wm.edu/news/fights-rights).

• The College’s Lemon Project: A Journey of Reconciliation, begun in 2009, is focusing on the 300-year relationship between African-Americans and the College, from slavery to desegregation. A recent class taught by Professor Jody Allen, and a related Swem exhibit, explored the painful Jim Crow era that grew out of the failures of Reconstruction following the Civil War. The class examined the life of Henry Billups, an African- American who worked on the College campus from 1888 to 1955. (For more information, go to www.wm.edu/sites/lemonproject/index.php.)

• In April 2013, faculty members from the Lyon G. Tyler Department of History will host a conference on campus sponsored by the Virginia Sesquicentennial of the American Civil War (www.virginiacivilwar.org). The conference committee is chaired by Professors Scott Nelson and Carol Sheriff; members include Professors Melvin Ely and James Whittenburg. All are noted experts on the Civil War era. The conference will be focused on the theme of the “home front.”

As the nation commemorates the war’s sesquicentennial, we have new opportunities to reexamine the past — remembering the war that forever changed the College of William & Mary.

* Excerpt from a holograph letter published in the Papers of Charles Sumner, microfilm edition, reel 38, frame 413, edited by Beverly Wilson Palmer ’58, Alexandria, Va.: Chadwyck-Healey, 1988.

Editor’s Note: The Alumni Communications staff would like to thank Will Molineux ’56 for his invaluable assistance in the production of the Civil War series.

Possible Civil War Well Discovered on Campus

Digging in an area near the Brafferton Kitchen, a team of William & Mary archaeologists has recently discovered intriguing evidence of the College’s Civil War history just below ground — a brick well.

“We’re attuned to the potential for finding evidence of Civil War occupation on the historic part of campus,” says Joe Jones, director of the William & Mary Center for Archaeological Research, which is carrying out the dig in conjunction with the College’s ongoing project to replace underground utility lines.

Resembling the letter "Q," uncovered remains of a well believed to be dug by Northern troops occupying Williamsburg bisect remains of a wall that archaeologists think was "robbed" of brick for the well lining.

Jones cautions that archaeological dating is not an exact science. “The archaeology is almost never as simple as the textbook example of excavating Pompeii. A piece of property like this is incredibly messy — you have to sift through a lot of background noise to come up with an informed interpretation.”

But the available evidence strongly suggests that the well was built by Union troops who occupied the campus from 1862 to 1865.

“We’ve recovered certain diagnostic artifacts from the well that are very suggestive,” Jones says. “There’s a Minié ball, which is the typical lead bullet that was used during the Civil War by both forces.

“The specific Minié ball that was recovered from the well is unfired, and has characteristics that suggest it probably was ammunition used by the North rather than the Confederacy. So that’s actually a lot of information to come out of one artifact — an unusual amount of information.”

Jones adds that the construction of the well itself also reveals important clues. “The evidence is a little more indirect, but the well is lined with what are clearly reused bricks, probably scavenged from other structures and then used in a pretty expedient way to line this well shaft,” he says. “There are also chunks of dressed fieldstone, such as pieces of granite that have been cut and stylized to be used as building stone.

“That’s totally consistent with what we know about the military occupation of the campus,” Jones continues. “Soldiers tore all kinds of things down in their effort to get building material. They were there for the long haul. They had a year-round encampment, they were building winter huts and fireplaces and wells, doing the kinds of things that could support 1,500 people.”

With so little evidence of William & Mary’s Civil War history remaining on campus, this recent archaeological discovery — fortuitously occurring during the war’s sesquicentennial — serves as a significant reminder of the College’s role on the war’s front lines.

Stephen E. Hanson

  • Vice Provost for International Affairs
  • Director of the Wendy and Emery Reves Center for International Studies
  • Lettie Pate Evans Professor, Department of Government

Education: B.A., Harvard University; M.A. and Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley

Family:Wife, Jennifer Stevenson J.D., legal writing instructor, Marshall-Wythe School of Law

What do you do as Vice Provost for International Affairs? I’m the senior international officer for the College of William & Mary; therefore, I am responsible for promoting and supporting anything international that goes on at the College.

What attracted you to international education? I started out as a Soviet specialist, so when the Soviet Union collapsed I was thrust into the world of globalization and the changes in international politics. I got hooked on that excitement, on the amazing changes that were taking place in the world that I was in the position to teach about, do research about and connect with the community about. Helping the next generation of students get access to these exciting changes, and to navigate them, is really my life’s mission.

What’s your favorite memory of your own time abroad? By now I’ve been all over the world, and that’s another great aspect of working in this field. Each trip you take offers another life-changing moment, but I guess the first trip abroad really is the one that stays with you the most. In my case, my first study abroad trip was to the Soviet Union in 1986. To be in one’s early 20s and encounter Russians who were chafing under that bureaucracy and that tyranny, being able to speak with them in the language that I had learned, and understand their perspectives, really transformed my worldview in major ways.

What’s in the future for the Reves Center for International Studies? The Reves Center is having its 25th anniversary in 2014 and we’re going to celebrate that event in style. We’re hoping to get a lot of our alums back in Williamsburg to reconnect with their past experiences. By now there are hundreds, if not thousands, of Reves alumni around the world, so there’s a whole lot of potential there. If we can realize it, that would be a whole community to support internationalization at William & Mary and this would be really important for the entire generation that is coming through now.

Photo by Skip Rowland '83

Every three months, the William & Mary Alumni Magazine is sent out to approximately 88,000 alumni and supporters of the College. A staff of five at the William & Mary Alumni Association is responsible for the majority of production from conception to execution. The Office of Alumni Communications consists of Mitch Vander Vorst, director; Ben Kennedy ’05, managing editor; Mike Bartolotta, art director; Megan Morrow, assistant director and Del Putnam, web manager. With such a small staff, flexibility, resourcefulness and a sense of humor are pertinent to making sure the 104-page periodical is published on time and with as few stress-related injuries as possible. Take a look at what exactly goes into this award-winning publication below.


AUGUST - NOVEMBER — Planning and conception of content begins months before the magazine is compiled. In some cases, topics are established several issues in advance. After an issue is sent to press, the communications team holds meetings once or twice a week to discuss story ideas, develop alumni features and delegate tasks for production. Much of the content is produced in-house or by local photographers and writers; and very little is outsourced to freelancers or interns. Often, several staff members work on the same project. Typically, Ben or Mitch is in charge of researching the background of the story, contacting the subject, interviewing him or her and writing the physical copy for the story. Mike or Megan is in charge of either producing the art for the piece or acting as liaison for the artist or photographer. All involved with the piece are responsible for fact-checking for historical and institutional accuracy.


NOVEMBER - DECEMBER — While content is still in the process of being produced, each piece is sent around for several rounds of proofing. One piece may be read as many as eight times before it goes to press. Each photograph and graphic element is checked for its Total Area Coverage (TAC), which measures how much ink a page can hold. To keep up with where each page of the magazine is during the production and editing process, a schematic is posted to the wall, featuring what is on every page and where it is in the process. A set of shorthand markings allow for any staff member to deduce where a piece is in the process with a quick glance.

EARLY DECEMBER — After the files are sent to the printer the first time, proofs are sent back to the Alumni House for another round of editing. Near the end of the process, the communications team sits down and reviews each page to check for any final errors.


DECEMBER — After the edits are sent to the printer, Mike and Megan travel to Lane Press in Burlington, Vt., where the magazine is printed. There, each page is checked to make sure that errors were corrected, colors are as close to the proofreading as they can be and that there is no registration in the text. The four-color printing process runs each signature (sheet of magazine pages) through presses that strategically layer each color (cyan, magenta, yellow and black) onto the page. Registration occurs when each dot of color does not line up properly with the image. A staff member must sign each signature, signifying that it is okay to continue to print them. If there is an error, a pressman changes the levels on the printer and provides a new signature within minutes. The printer runs 24 hours a day, and even during the adjustments to color and registration, the press continues to print the magazine.


LATE DECEMBER - JANUARY — After all errors are corrected through the editing process, Del begins to compile the web and tablet versions of the magazine to be released when the magazine is mailed out. A week or two after the press check, the Alumni Association is mailed a preliminary box of issues. All issues that are sent to alumni ship directly from Lane Press to regional post offices across the country.


Picturing the Past

Bartolotta slides a new glass plate into his camera.

A view of the back of the camera showing where the glass plate would be during an exposure.

These images are taken using a larger format camera than most people are used to.

Bartolotta transforms a small dome tent into an on-site darkroom.

The ambrotype must be developed on-site.

The team admires their work.

Shedding Light on an Historic Photo Process

Produced to commemorate the 150th anniversary of the Civil War, the images above accompanied the three-part series published in the William & Mary Alumni Magazine and were captured using an early photographic process known as wet-plate collodion photography. Each image that was reproduced in the magazine was a digital representation of an original ambrotype — a one-of-a-kind positive photographic image that was produced in-camera on a 3”x4” inch piece of black glass.

Developed by Frederick Scott Archer in 1851, the wet plate collodion process was the first widely used photographic process that produced a negative on a sheet of transparent glass. One of the primary reasons image-makers of the time gravitated toward this method was due to the fact that the photographer could make an unlimited number of beautiful and sharp photographic prints on salted or albumen paper from a single glass negative. In addition, the glass collodion negatives also had the advantage of being viewed as a positive image. When an underexposed negative was held against a dark background such as paper or velvet, the back of the negative was painted with a black varnish or when the original image was produced on a piece of black glass, it appeared as a positive. In 1854, James Ambrose Cutting took out several patents relating to the process and it is believed he is responsible for naming these glass positive images ambrotypes.

At the height of its popularity, photographers such as Mathew Brady, Alexander Gardner and Timothy O’Sullivan documented the Civil War using the wet plate collodion process. Although this technology allowed for shorter exposure times than previous photographic methods, it still required the shutter on the lens to be open for several seconds. Any movement in front of the lens while the shutter was open would create a blurred image, and as a result, there are no combat photographs from the Civil War, as people in the photographs had to hold a pose for the length of the exposure.

On a summer morning in the Wren Yard, I set up my darkroom, a 7’x7’ dome tent with a custom-made, dark-cloth cover. Using a modified 1950s Speed Graphic camera I spent several hours photographing Colonial Williamsburg re-enactors Carson O. Hudson Jr., Steve Barnes and Joe Ziarko. Assistant Director of Alumni Communications, Megan Morrow, took the behind-the-scenes images of that photoshoot.

The wet-plate process was adapted for modern use to create the ambrotypes printed in the William & Mary Alumni Magazine, but is largely unchanged from the original process used in the Civil War era. To begin, a hand-cut piece of glass is polished and coated with a premixed solution of collodion (pyroxylin in ether). Next, the glass plate is bathed in a silver nitrate solution in order to make it light sensitive. Once removed from the silver bath, the plate is placed in a light-proof holder, which is inserted into the camera. The image is then captured. Using an iron sulfate solution, the plate is developed in a darkroom and then fixed with a solution of sodium thiosulfate to make it light safe. Finally, each plate is dried over an alcohol flame and a protective varnish is applied.

In recent years, as modern technology continues to make advancements in digital photography, the wet-plate collodion process has undergone a revival. There are several image-makers who regularly set up and create ambrotypes at Civil War re-enactments around the country. In addition, fine art photographers display personal work in galleries and enjoy practicing wet-plate collodion for its unique photographic aesthetic and its handcrafted, tactile nature. The process is taught in classrooms and workshops around the world, including a course I will be teaching at the Visual Arts Center of Richmond in April 2012, and several workbooks and manuals are currently in print about the subject.